"New Year Resolutions" By Elizabeth Sewell (Reference to the Context)

These lines have been taken from the poem “New Year Resolutions”, written by Elizabeth
This poem is about the new year resolutions and promises. Another year has lapsed. On the start of the new year, the poetess takes stock of herself very realistically. She tries to make this world a better place by making new pledges. Her untraditional resolution is to face and lie with reality.

Lines 1 – 3
In these lines the poetess describes her mental state and the way she would drink to purify her soul. She says that she will drink wine at night secretly. She will have long draughts during night and will purge herself from all kinds of evils. This will assist her in helping other people because her own mind and spirit will be free from all types of evils. “Long draughts of Quiet” also suggests that she will keep quiet most of time. This will be the best means for the purification of her oul and it will help her in leading beneficial and successful life. She says; she will talk less and hear more and mould her life into betterment.
Lines 4 – 6
In the given lines Elizabeth says, she will remember herself twice daily, in the evening and in the morning. She will take into consideration what her aim of creation is. She will try to understand the purpose of life in general. Perhaps she means that she should recognize herself, which will help her in recognizing God and leading life for benefit of others.
Lines 7 – 9
These are concluding lines of the poem. Here, the poetess says she will accept reality. While, sleeping at night, she will consider the bitter reality of life. During the new year she will make some promises and pledges. She will sleep on thin, less-fleshy arms of reality. Accepting reality and facts is always a difficult thing, but she will accept it bravely. She will feel relieved and satisfied, when she comes to know that she has spent her life for the benefit of others. The image of bony arms is a hard reality. Even then she will get delight and feel comforted when she has fulfilled her promises and resolutions, she has made on the start of the new year.


"Tartary" by Walter De La Mare (Reference to the Context)

This stanza has been taken from the poem “Tartary” by Walter De Le Mare.

This poem is a descriptive picture of an imaginary kingdom of Tartary. The poet considers himself the king of that state and wants to enjoy all the delights of life. He would have a throne of pure gold. Beautiful pets would roam about to please him. Musicians would play on instruments at the time of his meals. His rich land would be full of honey, fruits, beautiful gardens and attractive valleys. In fact, this poem is a journey into the realm of imagination.

Stanza 1
In these lines the poet presents the picture of an imaginary kingdom “Tartary”. He considers himself the king of this empire. He says if he were the king of Tartary, he would be its sole king. There should be no one else to share this kingdom. His bed would be made of ivory, a precious material. His throne would be made of pure gold. There would not be any mixture of base metal in it. He would have a spacious court in which peacocks would move here and there very proudly. His forests would be full of wild animals like tigers and lions. They would freely stroll in the forests as its real owners. His kingdom would have pools full of different
kinds of fish. They would swim aslant. They would be very happy and freer than any other object. The tiny fins of these fish would be sloppy towards the sunlight and would shine proudly and happily.

Stanza 2
In this stanza the poet further imagines himself as the king of Tartary and mentions his mealtime. He says that if he were the king of Tartary, bugles would call him to meals every day. This would become a ceremonial event. There would be great trumpeters that would produce heavy and noisy sounds. In the evening there would be lamps of different kinds. The light emitted by these lamps would be as yellow as pure honey. Some of the lights would be as red as pure and bitter wine. And during his meal and even in the evening, the players would play upon harp, pipe and many other musical devices. All these musical instruments would create sweet and beautiful music.
Stanza 3
In this stanza the poet says something about himself. He says that if he were the king of Tartary, he would wear dress of pure pearls. The pearls would be of white and gold colour. There would also be green beads among them. All these pearls would be mixed and would be a thick as grains of seeds. Further the poet wishes that he would wear his dress, his small sword before the waning of the morning star. This would mean that he would prepare himself very early in the morning. His carriage would be drawn by seven specific horses known as zebras. And these horses would draw his carriage through the deep and dark shades and clearings of Tartary.

Stanza 4
In these lines the poet says if he were the king of the imaginary kingdom, Tartary, he would be the sole owner of its silvery pale rivers. Water of these rivers would be very clear and tasty. He would be king of its fruits of all types. Hills of the land of Tartary would be his. The gorges bushes, tall trees and all the valley would be under his command and control. He would enjoy all the natural objects. The bright stars shining in the sky and the perfumed morning air would also please him. The shivering lakes of Tartary would be like the quiet and motionless oceans. There would be beautiful juicy trees of different kinds of fruits. These would attract birds and would delight him as well as the birds in the beautiful red valleys, red because of fruits and colourful flowers. This imaginary kingdom would please the poet all the time. All the beautiful natural objects mentioned by the poet shows his deep love for nature.

"Leisure" by William Davies (Reference to the Context with Explanation)

These lines have been taken from the poem “Leisure” written by William Davies.

This poem is a protest against the unnecessary commitment of man with worldly affairs. We are always in a hurry and have no leisure time to look at the beauty spread all around us. Man’s miserable life brings him nothing but sadness and worries.

Explanation: (Lines 1 – 4)
In these lines the poet bewails our rushed life. The poet says that we cannot call this life a pure life, if it is full of worries and anxiety. We have no time to stand at a certainplace and look carefully at nature. Even we cannot spare a few moments to stand under the branches of green trees and njoy the beautiful and restful shades of the trees. The common animals like sheep and cows are better than us in enjoying life. We cannot look at the common animals like sheep and cows grazing in the pastures. We have committed ourselves with worldly affairs unnecessarily and cannot enjoy nature and the natural beauty spread all around us.
(Lines 5 – 6)
In these lines the poet tells us, when we pass through some forest, we do not have time to stop for some moments to look at the trees tall and short, and enjoy their naturalbeauty. The dark green trees provide a soothing effect but we are always sick-hurried and cannot enjoy at least the simple beauty. Also we cannot look at the small animals like squirrels concealing their food-grain in the grass for the winter. This minor scene can also give us relief.
(Lines 7 –
In these lines the poet says that human beings cannot see the beauty that is hidden in the streams. During day time, when the rays of the sun fall upon the clear water of the brooks, the water reflects and shines like stars in the sky during night. Sometimes water of streams, because of its
clearness seems so beautiful that even stones beneath the water can be observed, which look like stars in the clear blue water. This scene also resembles the stars shining in the sky at night.

(Lines 9 – 10) & (11 – 12)
The poet says we are so hard luck that we cannot watch a girl or a woman who dances in the field. The feet of the dancing girl are very attractive and bewitching but we cannot spare time to look at these feet as how they dance. This dancing girl can also amuse us with her performance. The
poet also mourns that we have no time to wait for the words, the mouth of the dancing girl has to utter. As a sort of smile has appeared in her eyes but we cannot wait for such time as
the words from her eyes are transferred to her lips. Those words can amuse us. In fact the poet uses personification, a poetic device to explain the natural beauty scattered all around us. The poet personifies beauty as a young beautiful dancing girl having a smiling face.
(Lines 13 – 14)
In these concluding lines the poet regrets to say that ours is a poor life. In a way it cannot be life if it is full of cares and worries. Unluckily, we have no time to stand at a place and look carefully at nature that can refresh us. As such our life is nothing but lamentation through and through. As
human beings we should spare some moments and look at nature and natural beauty spread around us and enjoy life.

"Patriot into Traitor" by Robert Browning (Reference to the Context)

Reference: This is stanza has been taken from the poem Patriot into Traitor” written by Robert Browning.

Context: This poem is a criticism of politics and people’s opinion. When a leader comes into power, people call him a patriot. When he is dethroned, the same leader is considered a traitor. This is the tragedy of modern politics. The leader in this poem fell a victim to the same state of affairs. When he came into power, people showered flowers at him as a patriot. But after a year, they declared him a traitor, when he was no more in power. They took him to the gallows. But Browning has ended his poem not on a tragic, rather on a next world optimistic note.

Stanza 1
In these lines the poet says through the mouth of a political leader, when for the first time, only one year ago, on that very day, he came to power, the people gave him a very warm welcome. There were roses mixed with myrtle flowers which people spread on his way through and through. The
house-tops were crowded with people and they were moving and swinging like mad people. Also they were so happy as if they were mad. The minarets and domes of churches were shining with light. These churches were decorated with colourful flags. All this was on that very day when the
politician came into power and it took place only one year ago.
Stanza 2
When the people were given him a warm welcome they rang bells and raised slogans. These different voices mingled with one another and produced a sort of music. The air became misty and heavy because of the noisy slogans and the ringing bells. The slogans of the crowd were so heavy and loud that the adjacent walls of the road-side houses trembled
with various cries and noise of the crowd. These people were welcoming him so happily that if he had told them that mere noise and slogans did not please him. And that they should give him the sun, that is there in the sky far away from them , they would have replied, that was executed (done and what else they could do for him ‘the leader’).
Stanza 3
In these lines the leader regretfully says that the people did not help him, instead, it was he who leaped at the sun and made impossible, possible for them. He brought the sun down and handed it over to his dear friends (country men). He made them realize that every impossible could be made
possible for sincere friends. As such he made every effort and did not leave any thing undone for them. Had he left anything undone, nobody else would have done that for them. But he further says with great sorrow that today when only one year has lapsed and that he is no more in chair, his reward can be seen. It can also be seen what he is reaping as a reward of his deeds. He has been branded as a traitor by the people of his nation.
Stanza 4
In these lines the poet mourns that nobody can be seen on the housetops to welcome him now. It is quite opposite to the scene when he was received by them. Now there are only a few people, who are rather paralyzed and are standing at the windows. Now they are watching a different sight. This sight is a sort of ridicule and everybody agrees to it.
Obviously, the sight is horrible because the leader is now being taken to the slaughter-house, or it can be better said, the leader thinks, that he is being taken to the gallows to be hanged there. It is all the reward of his good deeds. His deeds have been converted into wicked deeds and people are now punishing him for his supposed misdeeds.
Stanza 5
In these lines the poet also mopes over his sad condition. He says that the people are carrying him to the gallows in the rain. They unnecessarily, have tied his hands behind his back with a tight rope. When they are taking him to the slaughter-house, the rope cuts his both hands at wrists. The culprit (the leader) feels that his fore-head is bleeding. This is because everybody in his right sense is throwing stones at him. Everybody feels that he has done nothing for his countrymen. Every person has turned against him and the achievements of his past one year have been changed to misdeeds. This means they have forgotten his service to them and they are now punishing him for his good work for them.
Stanza 6
In the given lines the poet, through the mouth of the deposed leader says that he was brought honourably to the chair and with great pomp and show but now he is being taken very insultingly to the gallows. He says sometimes great heroes fall from their climax and die. Such has not happened to him. Had he died in the peak of his power, he would have
been happy. Further the leader ridiculously says that heroes can not expect reward from God in the next world because they get their reward in this world. In his case people have not done him justice. They have killed him. He says after death he will go to his Lord Creator where God Might question him about his deeds he had done for the people. He would
reply that he had done his best for them but they rewarded him with shame. Now he will ask God for a reward because God is just and He would give him the best reward in the other world for his service to his people. He would be safe with God in the world here after.

"The Rebel" by By D.J. Enright (Reference to the Context)

These lines have been taken from the poem “The Rebel” written by D.J. Enright.
This poem deals with the attitude of a social rebel. Actually a rebellion is a manner to look different from others. Such a social rebel is neither dangerous nor vicious. He does not make the other people’s lives miserable. He just wants to look different. Young dissatisfied people may behave like this. But the society should not have social rebels.

Lines 1 – 2


In these lines the poet expresses the attitude of a social rebel. When every body keeps short and uniform hair, the rebel knowingly grows his hair long. This, he does for the fact that he wants to look different from others.
Lines 3 – 4

In these lines the poet says that the rebel goes against the custom and tradition of the society. When the rest of the society grows long hair, the rebel cuts his hair short. This he does just to have a difference from others.
Lines 5 – 6
In these lines the poet expresses the thought when every member of the society talks during a lesion or meeting, the rebel keeps silent because he wants to be prominent.
Lines 7 – 8

In these lines the poet says when no-body talks during the lesion or meeting, the rebel creates disturbance by talking loudly just to look distinct.
Lines 9 – 10
These lines show a different position of a rebel. When every person of the society wears simple and uniform clothes, the rebel uses strange and odd clothes. He wants to look distinguished from others.
Lines 11 – 12

In these lines the poet says when all other members of the society use queer and strange clothes, the rebel dresses himself very seriously and soberly.
Lines 13 – 14

In these lines the poet expresses his idea of a rebel. If some people love dogs as pet animals, the rebel talks about the usefulness of cats. He prefers cats to dogs.
Lines 15 – 16

If a rebel is in company of those people who love cats, he prefers dogs to cats. He wants to look different at all costs.
Lines 17 – 18
The poet says if people require the sunlight and praise the sun the rebel is against them. He says that the sun is not required and there is need for rain.
Lines 19 – 20

When everybody of the society welcomes and requires rain, the rebel says something about the sun. He feels sorry for the absence of the sun. according to him, there is need for the sunlight.
Lines 21 – 22
When every members of the society goes to some gathering and attends the meeting, the rebel stays at home and keeps himself busy by reading a book indoors.
Lines 23 – 24

When everybody of the society stays at home and reads a book, the rebel tries to find some crowd of the people and wants to attend to them.
Lines 25 – 26

When every person asks for something, the rebel rejects the same with thanks. Because he is a person quite different from others.
Lines 27 – 28

When everybody of the society does not like and does not receive anything and says thanks, for that, the rebel, on purpose, requires that thing and asks for it.
Lines 29 – 30

In these lines the poet concludes that it is very good that we have social rebels in the society. But naturally, it is not good to become a social rebel. The poet further suggests that if we already have the social rebels, we should tolerate them. Without them life will become monotonous and dull.

"Woman Work" by Maya Angelou (Reference to the Context)

These lines have been taken from the poem “Woman Work” written by Maya Angelou.
The poetess feels extremely bored and tired after attending to her house-hold affairs. She feels that only the natural phenomena can exercise healthy influence on her. The natural objects can save her from unbearable boredom and can raise her spirits. A house-hold woman remains awfully busy with the domestic chores. Even then, she can enjoy nature through her imagination. It is an indirect praise of the woman’s greatness. In general, the poem is an escape from the drudgery of the mechanical routine and taking shelter in ideal life.

Stanza 1 = Lines 1 – 4
In these lines the poetess gives vent to her feelings for her dull and busy life. She is tired of the routine work of a working woman. She says she has to look after children at home. Also she has to repair clothes of the members of her family. She has to clean the floor of her house and has to
collect edibles from the shop for her family. After that she has to cook those things which she has brought from shop.
Stanza 2
These lines are a continuation of her domestic chores. She has mentioned some of the chores in the previous stanza and of some talks here. She says that she has to cook chicken for the family. Also she has to dry the baby after bathing it. After that she has to prepare meal for her guests. She has to remove unwanted plants from her garden. She has to press the clothes of her children and other members of her family. She has to dress her little children and also has to cut bamboos. She has to clean the whole house. All these chores are quite tough and require courage and for bearance on the part of a domestic woman.
Stanza 3
In these lines the poetess wants to enjoy the natural objects. She has got tired of the domestic work and wants to go close to nature. She says that the sun light should shine on her, rain should fall on her. The dewdrops should gently fall upon her. All these things can cool her brow. All these natural objects can give her satisfaction and peace.
Stanza 4
These lines are an expression of her escapism from the busy life of a working woman. The domestic woman remains awfully busy and dreams of an ideal life. In these lines she asks storm to blow her from the busy world across the sky with its stormy wind. As such she will be able to get relief from the hurly burly of life. She asks the storm to take her to an imaginary world for rest. Only imagination can give her, peace, solace and satisfaction, otherwise physically it is not
possible to run away from this world. Shelley in “Ode to the West Wind” says, oh, lift me as a wave, a leaf, a cloud! I fall upon the thorns of life! I bleed!
Stanza 5
This stanza is also an expression of taking relief and refuge with natural objects. She asks the snow-flakes to fall gently on her body and completely cover it up and make it all white. When she will be completely under the charm and burden of the white snow, she will get solace. She further
asks snow to touch and give her cold icy kisses, so that she may be able to have rest that night. Actually the natural objects can please a person and give company for some time.
Stanza 5
In these lines the poetess addresses all the natural objects to help her in giving relief from the busy life of a working woman. She wants to lose herself among the natural objects. That is why she asks the sun, rain, the curving sky, the mountains, the ocean, the leaf and the stone to give her
relief. Actually she wants to get relief and joy from all these things and wants to run away from dark and dull life at home. That is why she asks the moon to glow, the shining stars to give her shelter with them. She calls all these things her own because she wants some leisure and satisfaction in these natural things. Nature can give delight to her and can transport her to peace and tranquility.

"The Solitary Reaper" By William Wordsworth (Reference to the Context)

Reference: These lines have been taken from the poem “The Solitary Reaper” written by Wordsworth.

Context: In this poem the poet tells us the story of a lovely Highland Girl, who is working in a filed and singing a song. He is deeply impressed by her song and remembers the melody of her song even after he has left the place. He cannot understand the language of the song but the sad beauty of her voice goes straight to his heart. The atmosphere of the poem and the song of the girl as a part of the beauty of Nature leave a lasting impression on the mind of the poet.

Lines 1 – 4
In these lines the poet tells us about a young girl of Scotland. He tells us to look at the girl who is reaping grain and also singing a sweet song. He advises the passerby to stop short and listen to her song or pass very silently by her, so that she is not disturbed.
Lines 5 – 8
The poet says that the highland girl cuts and binds the grain in sheaves. She is also singing a sad song. She is very busy in her song as well as her work. The poet once again advises the passerby to listen to her song. He says that the whole deep valley is echoing with her sweet song. The whole dale is listening to her sweet voice. We should also listen to her song and enjoy it.
Lines 9 – 12
In the given lines the poet compares the sweet voice of the girl to that of a nightingale. Nightingale is considered a sweet-voice bird. The poet says no nightingale has so far sung as melodious a song as the girl sings. When some group of tired travelers reaches a shady place, in the Arabian deserts, the nightingale welcomes the caravan with its sweet song. It is obvious that commonly there is no nightingale in the deserts. But if there is some oasis, it is but natural that a
nightingale is found there. So when a tired caravan reaches any oasis or shrubby area the nightingale welcomes it. The poet says that the voice of the singing girl is rather sweeter
than that of a nightingale.
Lines 13 – 16
These lines show a comparison between the song of the girl and the song of the cuckoo. He says that such a sweet voice was never heard from the cuckoo even in the spring season. The song of cuckoo is always very sweet but the voice of the girl, who was singing, was sweeter than the cuckoo’s. The voice of the girl was so sweet that it broke the silence of the seas and of the far off islands on north-western coast of Scotland. These islands are never disturbed by any storm but
the voice of the girl intruded into the silence of this group of islands. This was because of the praiseworthy song of the girl which even affected the seas.
Lines 17 – 20
In these lines the poet tells us about the language of the song. He does not understand the alien language of the song. He says will no one tell him the meaning of the song of the girl. He says that perhaps the girl is singing some sad song of the past. He guesses the language and the meaning of the song. Perhaps the girl is singing some unhappy song or singing about events that have taken place in the past. Perhaps she is singing about battles which have been fought in the far off past.
Lines 21 – 24
These lines are also an expression of the ununderstandable language of the song. The poet again guesses at the theme. Perhaps she is singing a simple song on some ordinary matter of the present age. Perhaps she is singing simple sorrow of loss or of some misery. May be she is singing for the lover who has jilted her. Probably, the incident of loss or pain has taken place in the past and it may be experienced again in future.
Lines 25 – 28
These lines also show that the poet did not know the theme of the song. He says whatever theme she sang, irrespective of that, it seemed that the song of the young girl would not come to an end. The poet says that he saw the girl busy at her work and also singing while reaping with a sickle
in bent motion.
Lines 29 – 32
These are the concluding lines of the poem. The poet says that first he listened to her song standing still and motionless. But as he mounted up the hill of Scotland, the tune of the song was so sweet that it struck the heart of the poet. He was sop impressed that he carried, the melody of the song with him long after the song was ended by the girl. Actually, the poet, being a poet of nature, was profoundly impressed by this natural scene. He remembered this song for its natural melodious effect.

"One Art" By Elizabeth Bishop (Reference to the Context)

Reference: These lines have been taken from the poem “One Art” written by Elizabeth Bishop.
Context: In this poem the poetess wants to teach us that the art of losing things is necessary to lead a pleasant life. We should not bother, whether things are lost or snatched from us. The loss of door-keys or some other possession should be accepted as a part of life. No loss should disturb us, we should take our defeats and losses lightly.

Stanza 1
In these lines the poetess wants to teach us an uncommon lesson about losing things. She says that the art of losing things is not difficult to learn. Many things are included or intend to be lost. The loss of these things which we lose everyday, will bring no disaster. Actually, the poetess wants to teach us the art of acceptance and resignation.
Stanza 2
In these lines the poetess tells us that we should try to lose something everyday and accept the confusion created by this loss. For example, if we lose door keys, naturally, an hour is spent in trouble. After that we will get used to the loss, or we shall find some solution to the problem. Even then if we try to learn the art of losing things, it is not difficult to master.
Stanza 3
The poetess says, we should try to lose things farther and faster. This practice will habituate you to losing things and you will not feel any trouble. Once you get used to losing things, then forget the names of people with whom you lived and forget the place where you did go and spent some time. Forgetting names and places will not put you in trouble if you
have mastered the art of losing.
Stanza 4
In the given lines the poetess cites some personal examples. She says that once she lost the watch given to her by her mother. This watch was very dear to her but its losing did not create any disturbance to her. After that she lost three very dear houses by migrating from one place to another. She lost these houses one after the other. But this did not disturb
her. So the art of losing things is not difficult to learn.
Stanza 5
In these lines, also the poetess quotes some other examples. She says that she lost two dearest cities and more than that she left two very dear rivers and also some property and estate that she owned. In addition, she lost even a whole continent, when she migrated from North America to South America. She says that she remembers all these things but
their loss is not a disaster. She means to say that some times even kings have to leave their dominions but this does not bring any devastation.
Stanza 6
In these lines the poetess concludes her lesson. She says even if we lose our very dear friends, relatives, their most joking voice, their most loved gestures, these do not bring any destruction. She says, perhaps she has not told a lie in this regard. Obviously, the art of losing things is not difficult to learn, although it looks so. But one thing is clear that losing things does not bring any disaster. The poetess wants to teach us that for leading peaceful life, it is necessary to accept the hard realities of life and accept even the worst impact of our losses. It is necessary to take our defeats and failures lightly.

" The Huntsman" by Edward Lawbury (Reference to the Context)

Reference: These lines have been taken from the poem “The Huntsman” written by Edward Lawbury.

Context: This poem tells a Kenyan folk-lore. It tells that some-times a hunter becomes hunted himself. Kagwa went hunting and found a talking skull. He came to the king and informed him to the fact. The king ordered to know the reality. When it was found not so, Kagwa was killed. Strange enough it was that after his murder the skull spoke. The story tells us that irresponsible talking can bring destruction. The elements of suspense and irony create a shocking impact.

Stanza 1
In these lines the poet says that Kagwa, a famous hunter, hunted lions and tigers through forests and bushes. He used his spear for hunting. One day, while hunting, he found the skull of a man in the forest. The skull was talking. Kagwa asked the talking skull, how it had come there. The skull opened its mouth and replied that talking had brought it there.
Stanza 2
In this stanza the poet says that after getting the skull, Kagwa went home hurriedly. He appeared before the court of the king and talked about the skull Kagwa told the king that he had found a skull which was talking. On hearing these words the king was surprised so much. He thought that no
dead skull ever talked. After that the king said slowly to himself that he had never heard of or seen a skull that talked. He said, since his birth from his mother he had never heard of such a thing.
Stanza 3
In these lines the poet says, when Kagwa told about the talking skull, the king called out his guards. The king ordered two of the guards to go with Kagwa and find the talking skull. He also told the guards if Kagwa proved a liar, and there was no such thing as the talking skull, Kagwa msut be killed
Stanza 4
In the given lines the poet says that Kagwa and two guards of the king rode their horses to the forest. For some days they looked for it but found nothing like a talking skull. But after some more struggle they found a skull. Kagwa asked the skull how he had come there. The skull remained
silent. Kagwa again earnestly requested the skull but it did not talk. And they all were surprised.
Stanza 5
In the concluding stanza the guards ordered Kagwa to kneel down. The guards killed him with sword and lance. When Kagwa was put to death, the already dead skull opened its mouth and asked the hunter, how he had come there. The dead body of Kagwa replied, talking had brought him there. This simple story has a meaningful moral. It teaches us that irresponsible and worthless talking can bring destruction or death to the talker.

Leisure – Summary
The poem starts with a question about the life, which is full of worries and cares and has deprived the modern man of leisure to enjoy the beauty and charms of nature. The poet depicts that we are absorbed so much in the problems of the world that we have no time to stand and see the beauties of this world.
We are so busy in our daily routine that we have no time to watch what nature has got to show us. It seems that cattle are better than we are as they have the leisure to stand under the branches of trees and enjoy the blessings of nature. Similarly we pass through jungle like a blind man who does not see the beautiful creatures of the wood. We have no time to stand and watch the habits of the little squirrel that is hiding the nuts in the grass for the rainy season. We have no eyes for the beauties of nature. The streams appear so beautiful in daylight, the rays of the sunshine like stars in the water and remind us of a starry night. So with the help of beautiful simile, the poet compares the shining water of the stream to a starlet night but also we have not got the time to appreciate its beauty because we are busy in our own petty problems. Then the poet personifies beauty as living being and regrets that in our rushed life we have no time to appreciate the joys that “Beauty” can give us, as Keats also points out.

“A thing of beauty is a joy for ever”.

But we have no eyes to see this superb blessing of God. Beauty has feet and it dances well. Beauty is an abstract quality but the poet personifies it and in this way makes it a living thing that can move, dance and smile. She smiles with her eyes and that smile slowly conquers her whole face but we cannot relish that delight, as we have no spare time. As Thomas fuller says,

“The poor is not he who hath not much but
he who craves much.”

So the poet comes to the conclusion that we are spending a dull life. Our life is full of tension and worries. This life is not worth living in only because of our busy routine. The so-called mechanical revolution has made man a machine also. He works like a computer and acts like robot. Time has become very precious for him. He thinks about time in terms of money, so he cannot waste time for himself. Our busy life has taken us away from the beauties of nature. Wordsworth presents the same idea when he says,

“The world is too much with us
late and soon. Getting and spending,
We lay waste our powers.
Little we see in nature that is ours”

The poet feels that life must be relished in a leisurely manner. The repetition of the line “We have no time to stand and stare.” emphasizes the poet’s basic idea.

"Departure and Arrival" by T.S. Eliot (Reference to the Context)
REFERENCE: These lines have been taken from the poem Departure and Arrival written by T. S. Eliot.
The poet in this poem says that man should keep in view his departure right at his arrival in the world. He should determine objects of his life and work for them. Man should leave a better world before his departure to the next world. As sons of the twentieth century we should set good examples for the coming generation, so that we may be remembered forever. We must struggle to make the future better, before we start for our destination. The poem shows Eliot’s faith in idealism and optimism.

In these lines the poet has compared life to a sea. He says that while standing upon the shore of the sea of life, we delay for a few moments and ponder over the situation for sometime, doubtfully. This we do for what we know about the previous life of our forefathers. After that we take heart and cheerfully sail across the harbour by crossing its limits. Then we have no guide map to show us of the dangers of rocks that lie below water. Even then, we start our journey very courageously. The sea of life is full of dangers and threats but we start our life even if we do not know about them.
In the given lines the poet says that although the path of life is slow, troublesome and zigzag, although it is full of countless fears, yet it appears to the hopeful eye of our young generation, very colourful. It is like a street, on both sides of which hawthorn flowers and roses have grown and the street is red and beautiful. We hope it may be so. But it never happens that life is always colourful. Would that we might know about the future life, but we cannot predict the nature of our future life. We do not have certain knowledge of the future years.
Many great duties devolve upon the 20th century. These duties are even more important than those granted to the previous age. These duties call upon us to be more responsible, because no body knows what has been written in our fate. So no body knows what we can give to the future life in terms of good and great deeds. No body knows whether, we will overcome the pains and miseries of our future life. Also no body knows whether 20th century will create heroes greater and better than those of the olden times (19th century). But we hope that the future years will bring us better conditions and heroes.
In the given lines the poet assures that if they (people of twentieth century) have to make the 20th century greater than the past ones, its inhabitants will have to work hard with eager and willing hearts to help make its destiny shining. They should work hard for the better future of their own century and see that this
century achieves proud estate and then, this century should bequeath its best estate to the future centuries.
The 20th century should produce a legacy of advantages and benefits and bestow it upon the coming century. So that the sons of this century are counted among those who have been trying and labouring hard for good of their century till their death. And that the people of the coming century may not ask any other question
than to know that people of 20th century have helped making their future glorious. And that the people of 20th century have raised their flag and of the coming century, to height.
In these lines the poet says that some time in future years when the people of 20th century have gone grey and have become old, by then, they will desire to see that place again which they have left behind. They will like to see what-ever changes they have brought or whatever has been done for the betterment of the coming century by them, shall be recommended. This makes no difference even if people of 20th century live no more and have gone to the unknown places (have died) they will like not to be forgotten in any age because of their good deeds for the future generation.

"All the World a Stage" by William Shakespeare (Reference to the Context)

Reference: These lines have been taken from the poem “All the World’s a Stage” written by William Shakespeare.

Context: This sonnet of Shakespeare is from his famous play “As You Like It”. This poem describes various stages of human life. Life has been compared to a play or drama played by every man and woman on the stage of the world. His seven stages of life are the seven acts of a play. This shows Shakespeare’s deep knowledge and transience of human life.

Lines 1 – 5
In these lines the poet compares this world to a stage. All men and women are only actors and actresses on the stage of this world. All these people have different routes to enter this stage and also have different exits to go out. They enter this stage when they are born and leave this stage when they die. Every person, during his life time plays many parts. These parts are called seven ages. These ages are actually like acts of a play.
Lines 5 – 10
The first stage of a man’s life is his infancy. During his infancy he cries and throws up milk and vomits when he is in the hands of a mother or a nurse. The second stage is his boy-hood. This is his school going period. It is the time when he complains all the time. His face shines like the bright and fresh morning. He carries his school bag and unwillingly goes to school at the speed of an insect.
Lines 10 – 12
This is the third stage of man’s life. Now he is a grown up person and assumes the form of a lover. It is the time when he loves his beloved ardently. He sighs like a furnace or an oven. He writes a song in praise of his beloved’s eye or brow. He also sings such songs again and again as he burns in his emotions.
Lines 12 – 16
In these lines the poet shows the fourth stage of a man’s life. When he matures, he becomes a soldier. He takes strange oaths. He has a beard like a tiger or a leopard. He is fierce like these animals. During this stage of life, man is jealous of honour of other. He is very quick-tempered and owns quarrels. Since he is warm-blooded, he looks for temporary reputation and fame. To achieve this temporary fame, he is even ready to go into the mouth of a gun. He does not bother
for dangers.
Lines 16 – 20
This is the fifth stage of man’s life. Here man becomes middle aged and mature like a judge and has a fair round belly full of the meat of chickens. Perhaps, he has become fit because he eats meat and fat castrated cocks in excess. It is the stage when he is firm, serious and grim. His conversation is full of many different proverbs of the world of the past and is also full of the examples from the modern age. He has beard of formal cut and as such plays this part of life.
Lines 20 – 26
This is the sixth stage of man’s life. In this stage man shifts from middle age, to old age. Now he wears pantaloon with slippers on his feet. He has become thin, weak and lean. He wears now spectacles on his nose because of his weak eyesight. He has also a purse by his side in which he keeps money and tobacco. He uses long socks which he has saved during his youth. Now these socks are very loose to his lean leg and look strange. His big loud manly voice has turned into
the shrill voice of a child. Since, some of his teeth have fallen, whenever he tries to speak. Its seems as if he were playing upon a pipe or as if he were whistling.
Lines 27 – 29
This is the last stage of man’s life. In this stage he changes from his old age to the oldest one. This is a strange stage of life. In this period all the life which has been previously full of strange events, comes to an end. Man becomes child once again. This is like his second childhood.
In this stage he is childish as well as childlike. At this stage he forgets almost everything. His memory becomes very weak. He loses teeth, eye-sight and taste. He is without everything.
This is the stage in which he completes the drama of his life and leaves the stage of this world for the next.

Woman Work – Summary
Explanation of Main Idea
Maya Angelou, the poetess, has described the domestic routine of a housewife. The routine is mechanical, i.e. caring for the children, mending clothes, mapping floor, buying and cooking food and pressing clothes etc. It is in fact drudgery.
No leisure is available to a woman. Even then she is dreaming of ideal life. She longs for rain, sunshine and snowfall. It gives woman strength to sustenance. She wishes to be one with Nature and loves to be a part of the mountain, oceans, leaf and stone, star shine, moon glow. She likes to participate in nature around her. She is tired of her daily mechanical routine and requests the storm to rescue

her as follows:

Storm, blow me from here
With your fiercest wind
Let me float across the sky
Till I can rest again

The poetess, Maya Angelou has success fully described the disgust of the house woman for the dullness of life of drudgery and her longing for ideal life and union with nature around her.

Critical Appreciation
In this poem, Maya Angelou, an American poetess, tells us about the routine work of a woman. She is busy in daily chores. She attends the children and looks after them. She also mends the old cloths. She cleans the floor and also does all the shopping for the house. She has to cook food for the whole family. She looks after the young baby when it is wet and cries. Sometimes, she invites guests at her house and she has to serve them. She also cuts the cane for different household works such as making chair. Then, she cleans the whole house.
All this daily work just makes her life dull and bored. She may not remain creative and productive. In the house of such busy work she spares some time to enjoy the beauties of nature. She invites the sun to warm her and asks rain to fall on her forehead and make her clam and cool again. She asks the storm that with the help of its violent winds, it should take her to the skies where she can float and fly lightly and forget all her worries and troubles, where she can forget about the drudgery of this mechanical life and have some rest and relaxation. It is, in fact, a universal truth.
She asks the snow to cover her with its soft flakes. It seems that snow is kissing her and its touch is very cold and icy. So she addresses the things of nature, shining sun, falling rain, round and high sky, lofty mountains, vast oceans, green leaves, shining stars, glowing moon and even the humblest stones of this universe. She thinks that these are the only things she possesses because only they give her comfort during her work. She enjoys them all instead of her dull and boring work. As Ted Hughes says:

The convenience of the high trees,
The air’s buoyancy and the sun’s ray
All an advantage to me;

The monotonous work of the house gives her no pleasure. She is constantly under pressure that she has to do so many things. She is taken for granted by all the members of family. She
is neither paid nor appreciated. But, all this boring and dull work has made her a machine. Her senses are not yet dull. She still has got her imaginative power and can enjoy the dream of an ideal life. All these natural things give her power and strength to do her work. The beauty of the natural objects recharges her and pacifies the creative side of her mind.

New Year Resolutions – Summary

In this poem, the poetess, Elizabeth Sewell, has made an extraordinary resolution to make herself a better woman by facing and living with reality in the start of the New Year. New Year is generally understood as starting of a new chapter of one’s life. People make resolution by taking stock of their lives and resolving to be better ones. Socrates, the great Greek philosopher, is reported to have said that unexamined life is not worthy of living and it is almost a tradition with the sensible and reasonable people to take stock of their life and to resolve to be better people, at the start of the new year.
So, the poetess has decided to live with reality in the New Year. Reality is not always comfortable but pinching and disturbing. The use of the image “bony arms” points to this fact. But the poetess is resolute and will draw comfort fulfilling her resolution. The phrase ‘draining of long draughts’ is linked with drinking wine but the poetess intends to drink calmness and thinks it necessary for cleansing herself. It is quite natural and true that in loneliness and quiet one can examine one’s life honestly. It is a self-criticism. Life examined critically purifies one for better future life.

Critical Explanation:
It is a short and interesting poem written by Elizabeth Sewell. The arrival of New Year is usually celebrated with great fervour and enthusiasm. It is a tradition to make some promises in the light of which one wants to spend one’s New Year. Usually people pledge to become better human beings in the New Year.

The poetess makes an extraordinary resolution at the beginning of the New Year. She says that in order to purify her soul, she will remain quiet. She will drink long sips of quietness. It is a beautiful simile as if quietness is a medicine that can make her clean physically and spiritually from impurities. Quietness seems to purify her because when a person is quiet and is not taking active part in the problems of the world, he gets time to have an insight into his own soul. He can then see his own impurities and drawbacks and can get rid of them. The poetess also wants to do this. She will face the reality. She will not have any high opinion about herself in future. She will not lead a conceited life and have no superiority complex about herself. From now on, she will speak the truth to herself. She will not misjudge her own personality. In order to fulfill this goal. She will remind herself about her own reality twice during a day. Her assessment about herself will be true and real. During the night also, she will not forget the reality. Nodoubt, it is a time when one forgets bitter realities of this world and is lost in the imaginary world of dreams. But she pledges that she will not lose her contact with reality though it is hard like the bony arms yet she will prefer it because she has made her pledge and only the fulfillment of her promise will make her happy.

It is very hard thing to face the reality and specially the reality about our own self. Our ego and our conceited self stop us from seeing our weakness. Without facing these realities, we are unable to improve ourselves. So the resolution to see the reality is the first step towards reformation.

Tartary – Summary

The poet, Walter De La Mare, imagines himself, in this poem as the “Lord of Tartary”. Tartary is a land of dream, beauty and fertility. It is replete with unheard and unseen delights. He desires to have a bed made of ivory, throne made of beaten gold, court full of dancing peacocks, forests full of roaming tigers and pools teemed with great fishes.
He imagines himself wearing a robe clustered with pearls of gold of green and white colour, holding a curved sword in his hand and riding a chariot driven by seven Zebras. He is fond of music and enjoys harp, flute and mandolin. He also desires to derive pleasure from the natural beauty and charming objects of Tartary as S.T.Coleridge puts it in own way,

“Where Alph, The Sacred river, ran
Through caverns, measureless to man
And there were gardens bright with sinuous
Where blossomed many an incense-beaming

The poet expresses his hidden wish. He wishes to be an absolute master of Tartary, a far-off land given the lineaments of a romantic land, beautiful, rich, fertile and full of delights. Then, he would lead a luxurious life. Hid bed would be made of solid gold. Beautiful peacocks would decorate his court and his royal jungles would be full of fierce roaming tigers. His beautiful ponds would be full of pretty fish whose fins would shine in the light of the sun and thus make the whole court colourful and delighting. The poet wishes to enjoy a life full of colour, pomp and show if he were the Lord of Tartary. Then his life would be changed altogether. His guards would blow bugle whenever the royal meal would be served. So his court would be full of the sounds of bugles and trumpets all the time. During the evening time, the beauty of the court would be enhanced and it would be illuminated with yellow and red light. Then like the courts of the great kings, the music and dance would be presented in his honour
All kinds of musical instruments would be played to produce sweet and melodious tunes. If he were the king, he would wear the royal dress decorated with different colours of beads and pearls. His robe would be full of white, golden and green coloured gems. Early in the morning before the waning of the morning star, he would put on his royal dress adorned with a curved sword. Seven Zebras would drive his carriage and thus he would inspect his royal estate passing through the green patches of his dark forests, as Coleridge says:

“And here were forests ancient as the hills,
Enfolding Sunny spots of greenery.”

He would be the owner of all the fruits of Tartary land and all the rivers shining in the light of sun would be his. He would be the master of the hills, valleys, forests and roves. Thus shining stars and the sweet smelling air, the winding lakes and the birds that are singing in the citron trees, all
would be his subject. So he would be able to enjoy all these things fully.

Through wood and dale the sacred river ran,
Then reached the caverns measureless to man,
And sank in tumult to a lifeless ocean.

The Huntsman – Summary by Sir

The narrative poem “The Huntsman” is based on a Kenyan folklore. The poet “Edward Lawbury” advises us through the story of a Kenyan hunter, Kagwa who himself becomes the prey to fate, to avoid the unnecessary talk. Kagwa was a hunter of lions and he used to hunt through bush and forest with his spear. One day he found a human skull and asked it how it had come there in the forest.

The skull opened its mouth and replied that the habit of talking had brought it there. He hurriedly went to the king’s court and told the king about this miraculous discovery. The king expressed his doubts about the truth of the tale. Instead of granting Kagwa a prize, the king called out his guards and ordered two of them to accompany Kagwa and search for the talking skull. The king further ordered them to kill Kagwa if such a strange skull was not found there.

Kagwa and two guards rode through the jungle for many days and nights but they could find nothing. At last, they found a skull, Kagwa asked it how it had come there. But the skull did not answer. Kagwa began to implore. But the skull remained silent. Upon this the guards ordered Kagwa to kneel down and they killed him in compliance with the kings orders. After it the skull opened its mouth and asked Kagwa, how he had come there. The dead Kagwa answered that talking brought him there. In this way the story of Kagwa proved the old maxim, “Think before you speak”. No doubt useless and irresponsible talk bring disaster for the talkative one.

The poem is a sad example of sick humour. After going through it we experience mixed feelings of humour and regret at the same time. Funny and unfunny aspects of life blended with the elements of suspense and irony create a shocking impact. The poem also describes the attitude of dictators and can be called a political satire. As it is shown that the dictators never like common people’s talk. They do not believe in anything without certifying it in their own way. Narrative style, end stopped lines, monosyllabic words and proper stanzac form provide this free verse an impressive out look. The poet is successful in drawing our attention to the tragic fact of life.
Patriot into Traitor – Summary
Dramatic Monologue:
A poem written in the form of a speech of an individual character; it compresses into a single vivid scene a narrative sense of the speaker’s history and psychological insight into his character. It is a poem in which one character speaks, while there are other characters present on the scene. There is a difference between a soliloquy and a dramatic monologue, in soliloquy a speaker is alone (it can be called a lengthy aside.) It is dramatic because it is full of dramatic irony.

Patriot into Traitor as a Dramatic Monologue:
Browning through this dramatic monologue has captured the mood of disillusionment and frustration of a leader who was considered a hero yesterday, but due to an unfortunate political upheaval, branded as a traitor. His tragic downfall is pitiable. And now condemned by the people, he hopefully waits for the judgement of God to redeem him. There are sudden and catastrophic changes shown in the rise and fall of the leader. The reader becomes surprisingly aware of the sudden and catastrophic rise and fall of the hero which has taken with in the lapse of one year.
In this dramatic monologue, Robert Browning describes the rise and fall of a political leader. Not only the rise but also the fall is sudden and quick. The poem has a special relevance to the political conditions prevailing in the third world countries today. The poet says that in the early part of the life of a political leader, success appears to be on his side. People loved him and adorned his way with petals of roses mixed with other flowers. They welcomed him from the house-tops with flags and it was only a year ago. The bells rang for him and there were crowd and cries everywhere(even in churches). The leader said that if he uttered to the people that he disliked the mere noises and the sun might be brought also from the sky on earth, the people would say what the next order to comply with. Instead he himself jumped at the sun to bring it on the earth for the people. He remained
unsuccessful because no human being could achieve like that. But he, the leader was not given the reward. He could get nothing except being branded as traitor.
Now an year has lapsed. There is nobody on the house-tops to welcome him. The leader is walking while it is raining. A tight rope is cutting his both wrists. His forehead is bleeding. People who greeted him with open arms just an year ago, are now, pelting stones on him and condemning him for his misdeeds. The fallen leader concludes that his entrance into the political life was a success. But his end is by no means praiseworthy. He says that he has paid what he owned to the people. Now, he will be rewarded by God in
the life hereafter.

The poet wants to make it clear that in third world countries democracy and democratic traditions are not still deep rooted. Democratic tolerance is not present. Therefore the political leaders have to meet such
circumstances. The poem contains a lesson for the people of third world countries. It is the lesson of steadfastness and tolerance in social as well as political life. Dramatic irony, political satire exact and realistic expression and optimistic end have made the poem a remarkable piece of poetic art.
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Rebel – Summary by Sir
July 25, 2010
Main Idea:
In this poem, the poet, D.J. Enright, describes the likes, dislikes and actions of a rebel as contrasted with a sensible and sane man. The attitude of a rebel is contradictory and non-conforming. In it lies the very characteristics and psychology of the rebel. The rebel is a troubled individual. His deviations from the normal are indicative, of his mental approach towards life and society.
He grows long hair while all others have short and vice versa. Similarly he dislikes talk during the lesson, prefers fantastic clothes to uniform. He loves cats while others love dogs. He enjoys reading a look in seclusion in contrast to others while they go to meeting. In short, the rebel negates the normal in every respect and walk of life. The poet has not employed the technical terms yet he has successfully identified the rebel from his deviant behaviour. Although at the end of the poem he says:

It is very good that we have rebels
You may not find it very good to be one.

Critical Appreciation:
The poet tells us about the attitude of people who revolt against society. It is indeed a mockery. The poet has used a mocking style in the poem. The poet expresses that such people are against everything. They want to help their individuality. They are against conventions and creeds. In
fact they are fed up with the monotonous society. So they try to introduce some changes through their attitude and appearance. When there is a fashion to have short hair, the rebellious person will not follow it and he will have long hair so that the people know that he is not one of them.
But when on the other hand as the fashion to keep long hair comes, he will quickly cut his hair short in order to maintain his individuality. In every field of life, his behaviour is same. In
classroom when boys and girls are given permission to speak and ask questions, the rebel will remain silent but when the others are silent and listening to the lectures attentively, his complex of self excitation forces him to speak and thus make himself prominent. In this way, he also disturbs the whole class but he is happy that he has kept his identity. He also displays his odd behaviour in the way he dresses himself. When the people wear the similar dress to look decent, sober and alike he wears unique and colourful clothes for the sake of exhibitionism and when there is fashion or trend to wear colourful and gaudy clothes, he will wear dull and decent clothes to distinguish himself. In the same way while talking to people, he displays his strange trends and tastes. If the people are praising dogs, he will appreciate casts. While talking to cat lovers he will speak in favour of dogs. This shows that he does not care about the emotions and feelings of people. He does not want to be friendly with them. His only goal and motive is to distinguish himself from others and in order to achieve that goal, he can go to any extent. In every walk of life he shows his eccentric attitude. If people are praising the sun and want to have warm weather, he will speak in favour of rain and cold weather. But if people are happy on a rainy day, he will feel sorry and regret the absence of the sun. When there is a social gathering, the rebel does not want to take part in it and prefers to stay at home and read some books. But when nobody is going out, the Rebel goes out and wants to have meeting with people who are enjoying their stay at home. The Rebel agrees when all other people are saying “NO”. His answer is in the negative, when all the people show affirmation. So he is different from common people in all respects. He keeps his identity due to his eccentric behaviour. His style of living is quite different from that of ordinary people.
Still, the poet appreciates him and says that it is good to have rebellious people among us. They save the society from dullness and uniformity. His attitude towards the rebel is sympathetic and lively. He does not condemn him, rather he takes delight in the strange activities and contradictory attitude of the rebel. Although, it is good to have rebels among us but surely we don’t want to become one because the life is surely very difficult for them. In fact they make their own life miserable trying to become unique and different. They face the harsh criticism of people and are disliked by the general public. Although all the variety and diversity in the society is because of them. This is the main tragedy of the rebel that he is not considered a normal person.

All the World’s a Stage – Summary by Sir
July 25, 2010
The great dramatist of all ages, Shakespeare presents a unique treatment of human life in his play “As You Like It”. This masterpiece of keen observation, All The World’s a Stage is infact a speech delivered by one of the characters of the above mentioned play. In this poem the poet compares the entire world to a stage, where all the men and women play their particular part. During the course of drama of life the character appear and disappear on the stage to perform their role. There are seven stages of this drama. Birth is entrance and death is

The first period begins and helpless infant in the nurse’s arms vomits feebly. In the second stage a complaining school boy appears on the stage. He goes to school unwillingly like a snail. Then a teenager enters the stage sighing like a furnace and singing songs for his beloved. After this, man acts as a soldier ready to fight suddenly, seeking prompt fame even in the cannon’s mouth to make his mark in the history. In the fifth period a judge, with formal beard, fairly round belly and severe eyes appears on the stage of the world. He knows many proverbs and can quote a lot of modern instances. In the sixth stage he becomes an old man, lean and weak. There are whistles in his voice and he wears glasses on his nose. He keeps a small bag with him and the world is so vast for his weak body. In the last, (seventh stage) he is on the verge of end (death). He has lost every quality of his youth and has become a helpless child again thus ends this eventful history(life).

These different stages hint at the fact that nothing is permanent in this life as life is transient. Interpretation of human life is understandable to some extent but is not agreeable fully.
Subtle and sublime rhyme scheme, blank verse, realistic comparison straightforward treatment, fresh imagery, theatrical vocabulary and runon- lines here and there are its special technical features.
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Solitary Reaper – Summary by Sir
July 25, 2010
The Solitary Reaper, a lyrical poem by Wordsworth, a renown romantic poet deals with the common experience of daily life. The poet recounts an incident of the past beautifully in verse. This is an excellent example of the poet’s aesthetic sense and high artistic taste. One day the poet saw a mountain girl who was all alone reaping grain and singing by herself. The poet did not like the singing girl to be disturbed by the passers by.

She was cutting and binding the grain and during the course of her work she was singing a melancholic song. The song was more sweet and melodious than the songs of nightingale who used to greet the weary travelers among the Arabian Oasis and was more thrilling than the songs of the cuckoo in the Spring time. The whole valley was full of this musical song and her beautiful tune was breaking the silences of the sees among the farthest Hebrides. The poet could not understand the theme of the song as it was in foreign local dialect yet he tried to guess the meaning. He guessed that the song was perhaps a complaint about old unpleasant far-off events and battles which took place long ago. It might be a simple matter related to the past or present.
In the end the poet does not bother about the theme. He got absorbed in the miraculous sight. He stood motionless and still, listening to the sweet strain and looking the girl .
The music impressed him so much that he hears it in his solitude even now when it is heard no more. Hence this sweet poem proves the truth of Keats,

“A thing of beauty is a joy forever”

Tender feelings, past memories, natural beauty and loneliness mixed with realistic and sentimental style make this narrative a true representation of Wordsworth. The beauty of song is given a romantic touch by hinting at the Arabian Oasis, Island of Hebrides, Weary
travelers and unknown language. Loneliness is the main feature giving the song fairy-tale like impression. Most probably the song would not be so impressive if it was not heard in solitude. Monosyllabic as well as polysyllabic vocabulary, subject matter of the song, similes of the nightingale and the cuckoo and suitable rhyming scheme are the remarkable features of this lyric.

One Art – Summary by Sir

Plain and straightforward but ironic poem “ One Art” is related with philosophy as well as religion. The poetess “Elizabeth Bishop “ teaches us the great value of resignation and contentment. She is of the view that the true art of losing helps us in developing a spirit of acceptance and resignation. The art of losing , in fact, means to live life, hoping for the
best, and to be ready to face and accept the worst.

The poetess says that it is not difficult to have a mastery over the art of losing something because many things have their existence only to be lost and their loss has no serious consequences. She advises to face difficulties and fluster of losing minor things like door keys and to bear our sufferings with patience. She asks to lose something daily to be perfect in this art.
We can learn this great art by practice. Practice of forgetting the names of people and places may help one to learn this art without any harm. She gives her own example that she has lost her mother’s watch, three houses, some property and even her homeland but it is not a disaster. She says that she can even lose someone very dear to her and can prove
that this art is very easy to master. Infact, the poetess advocates that to live in this world successfully, one must have patience and courage to bear losses. The people who are
always eager to make great achievements should also be ready to make sacrifices. Nothing can be achieved easily. The actual reality demands that one has to suffer loss before gaining something. So, a person who is determined to achieve great success should not give up struggle to avoid losses. The poem can be discussed as a satire. Everyone must lose something. Some one loses time and friends other loses property and kingdom. We also lose such things but we have no enough courage to confess it. There is also irony in this poem that to resign to fate is very difficult art but one has to learn it to lead a contented life. It combines the elements of satire, humour and irony. The tragedy of death which is inevitable is not
referred. the subject is discussed in a mocking and non serious way but the poetess is successful in conveying the message. Proper stanza form with an additional line, repetition of master and disaster, concrete images of common life and mocking yet didactic style
have made this poem a master piece of its own kind.