Pakistan and the Modern World by Liaqat Ali Khan
Circumstances which led to the Creation of Pakistan

‘Pakistan and the Modern World’ is, in fact, the speech of Liaquat Ali Khan that he made at University of Kansas, America. In his speech he tried to introduce Pakistan to the modern world by justifying the causes of its creation and highlighting its future expectations from the developed nations of the world.
He brought to light all the major causes which made it necessary for Muslims to establish an independent state for them. In the united sub-continent, there was a multitude of nations including Muslims, Hindus, Sikhs, Parsees and such other nations. Hindus and Muslims were two main nations in that part of the world. They were living together for centuries but nothing common could be developed among them. They had their different cultural, social, economical and educational back-grounds. They had a definite prejudice and bias towards each other to the effect that they could never intermarry nor inter-dine. So it was impossible for them to live independently under one rule. Hindus were in majority with the ratio of 1:3. When the English government decided to quit from sub-continent, Hindus were ready to capture the reign after the departure of British. So for the Muslims, freedom from British rule was nothing but a change of masters. There could easily be discerned a perpetual clash between Hindu majority and Muslims and a continual problem of law and order. Sub-continent was vast enough to be divided into two independent parts. It was surely difficult for one ruler to keep such a heavy mass under his control. A fear of political and social disturbance could always be there. So the Muslims rightly decided to struggle for a separate independent homeland for them where they could lead their lives according to their own religious, political, cultural, economical and social life style

Hardships faced by Pakistan After its Creation
At the time of partition Pakistan had to face many hardships and problems. Pakistan was quite a new state having no capital, no flag and no administrative power. It received no military equipment. So it was very difficult for Pakistan to manage things for its survival.

Industry was poor and people were backward. The only thing Pakistan had was the unity, will power and determination of its people to face all these problems. Freedom and independence with a poor economic condition had set Pakistan on a blind way which had the light of goal far away. Liaquat Ali Khan mentioned in his speech the duties which our freedom demanded from us. According to his point of view, it was our first and foremost duty to maintain and safeguard the freedom. Freedom from foreign rule was not the real freedom. Real freedom was freedom of common man from the threat of poverty, disease, social security and ignorance. So it was necessary for the people of Pakistan to utilize all the qualities of their mind and soul to get the maximum out of least given to them.

Liaqat Ali Khan’s Expectations
In his speech at Kansas, Liaquat Ali Khan tried to explain the expectation Pakistan had had from American and Western world. According to him, Pakistan was one of developing Asian countries, trying to pace on the way to progress. Had the developed countries helped it, it could have joined them in the same capacity.
To maintain the rate of progress Pakistan was looking towards the advanced nations such as America to owe helping hand. Liaquat Ali Khan viewed the progress of Pakistan not merely as the progress of a country but as a development and solidarity of Asia. Asia was a backward part of the world with people struggling against poverty, disease and ignorance. To make the world prosperous and strong, this major part of the world was necessary to be supported by the developed countries. Being situated in the centre of Asia a strong Pakistan could be a guarantee of peace in her continent. At that time only Pakistan was unified enough to lead other countries of her part on the way of progress. So America and other developed nations should support Pakistan and help it to improve its economical, educational and social knowledge

A note on the essay "Eclipse"

‘The Eclipse’ is a well-written essay by Virginia Woolf. It is a self-witnessed account of a solar eclipse which happened to take place in the northern parts of England on a morning of June. The essay shows the love of writer for nature and highlights the importance of sun for us. The writer thinks that all the colours of earth are because of sun.
It is the sunlight which makes the earth colourful, gay and live. If there is no sun, the earth would be dead. The eclipse which is discussed in the essay was taken place on a morning of June 1870. People were very enthusiastic and eager to watch this ‘change of Nature’. From every nock and corner of the country, people were going to the northern area from where they could watch this scene more clearly. Trains were full of passengers who were going to that place. Many groups of cars and other means of transport were seen on the roads moving towards the northern parts. All were anxious to observe the eclipse by himself. The writer herself and other people reached on the stone hedge which was the temple of sun-worshippers. When the eclipse started, a cloud began to cover the sun. Its light and brightness started to fade. Colours began to disappear from the earth. The blue changed into purple, pink faced grew green. The light turned into shadows and shadows began to become darker and darker. Then with the passage of time, as the eclipse completed, light completely went out. The earth seemed to be dead and the sun looked like a skeleton. But this lasted only for a short period. Then the sun tore the clouds and showed its one corner. A ray of hope glittered with the ray of sunlight. The sun seemed to be struggling to get rid of the clouds of eclipse. By and by the light of sun grew its brightness restoring the colours and warmth of earth. Finally the sun shone with full face and earth again turned into a colourful living thing.

Nagasaki August 9, 1945 – essay bu Machaito Ichimaro

The essay is written as an attempt to point out the deterioration and destruction of atomic weapons. The writer has narrated the scene of destruction which happened after the attack of atomic bomb on Nagasaki by America.
When this was happened, the writer himself was there and witnessed it personally. He heard the voice of a plane and then the smoke and fire was every where. The roofs of the buildings swung away, grass burnt into black and people either died or injured badly. The parts of their bodies, spotted with their blood, were scattered on the ground. Death was marching everywhere. Splendid building had got the shape of ruins. A number of ambulances were running on the roads to take the people to the hospitals. Such was the scene of destruction in Nagasaki after the attack of atomic bomb on it. In fact the writer has given in his essay the picture of this horrible attack to make the world realize the after effects of the use of atomic weapons. He seems to be giving a message to all of us that atomic energy may be useful in some ways but as far as a war is concerned “never again should these terrible nuclear weapons be used, no matter what happens. Only when the mankind renounces the use of these nuclear weapons, will the souls of my friends rest in peace.”

"Take the Plunge" theme and purpose by Gloria Emerson
‘Take the Plunge’ is a fantastic essay with the message that ‘Determination is the key to success’. We can always turn impossible into possible if we have confidence and strong will power. The writer, Gloria Emerson, has told us about her personal experience of taking the plunge to prove this message.
She has such a poor physical condition that everything that everybody used to take pity on her and thought her worth nothing. So she decided to do something extra ordinary to wash the mark of pity off her. She thought about many adventures but the only one suited with her bad back and uncertain ankles was to dive in the air with parachute from aeroplane. She joined a flying club to learn the art of diving with the help of a parachute. After completing her training successfully, she boarded a Corona 180 along with a companion. When she took the plunge, she felt the slap of wind and noise but after when her parachute popped open, everything came into peace giving her pleasant look of colours of earth and soothing expanse of space. In the end, she landed successfully. Nobody could expect from her such an act but she surprised all her friends by doing this bold act despite her poor physical condition. People applauded her attempt and her determination.

Main Theme "Whistling of Birds" by D.H. Lawrence

‘Whistling of Birds’ is very touching essay which moves our imagination. The writer has presented a contrast between Spring season and Winter season in it. The allegory of seasons has been described so masterfully that it keeps on gripping our attention throughout the essay.

Life is a continuous process; seasons also move in a cycle and follow each other. Winter is the symbol of death while spring is the symbol of life. When winter season comes, everything begins to die out. Leaves of trees begin to wither. There is frost everywhere. Birds die out and their remains in the bushes and ground cast the shadows of death. Death seems to hover all about but this lasts for only sometime then the change comes. It is the arrival of spring season which is the symbol of life. Things beaten by winter start to recover and restore their life. Birds forget the remains of dead and whistle to welcome the spring and new life. The branches of trees give birth to new leaves and greenery starts to rule. Frost melts away and give way to rays of life.
Moral and Main Theme of "My Tailor" by Stephen Leacock
The moral of the essay, My Tailor is that we should try to understand our fellow beings and try to share the worries of our fellow beings specially the common professionals around us. We often go to so many people around us to buy or get prepared something for us but we keep ourselves restricted to the business matters. We take them for mechanical workers and never try to take them as a ‘man’.
These men also keep a screen of professional dealings and manners on them and do not show their real personality to us. That is what Leacock has presented in his essay, My Tailor’. He tells us about his tailor in a funny way. He describes his ways to talk and deal, habits and actions in a mocking way. But towards the end of the essay he tells us that when he learnt that his tailor was dead, he got a shock. Only then he understood him as a common man and came aware of his worries and hardships. When the tailor was alive, the writer had never tried to know about his real life. But after his death he felt sorry for him and regretted his formal dealings with him. He has not mentioned any particular moral lesson or advice in the essay. He has simply described the character sketch of the tailor and has let us draw the moral ourselves. And the best possible moral in this essay is surely that we should not restrict our dealings with others to the business only.


Character-Sketch of "My Tailor" by Stephen Leacock
‘My Tailor’ is apparently a humorous essay with a sad end. It is about the life of a professional man who looks like a machine during his work and keeps his real life and personality hidden under the cover of his professional life.
The writer draws the character sketch of his tailor and describes his behaviour and actions in a funny way. But towards the end of the essay he turns this humorous figure into a pathetic character and tries to win our sympathies for him. In fact he seems to be of the view point that the real personality of such men is hidden beyond their professional smiles, actions and dialogues.

Whenever the writer used to go to his tailor to order for new suits, the tailor used to behave in the same way and rehearsed the same dialogues in every visit as these were the part of his dealings. There was always a smile of welcome on his face and a tape around his neck. He talked in a very sympathetic and polite way to his customers and always showed them cloth by putting on his bended knee. While taking the measurement, it was his habit to flatter the writer by saying that the size of his chest had increased by half an inch though the writer knew it very well that there was no increase at all in the size of his chest. Normally people start their conversation with the topic of weather but the tailor used to end the conversation at this topic.
The writer always enjoyed the actions, behaviours and machine like attitude of his tailor. But when he learnt that the tailor was dead, and his family was in trouble, he felt sorry for not knowing about his real personality in his life. For the first time, he took his for a man and realized his worries and problems. The death of the tailor tears his professional cover and shows him as a ‘man’. The writer describes this situation in a grave way and wins the sympathies of readers too for the tailor.

What are your observations of "Walking on the Moon"?
“Walking on the moon” is an informative essay by David Scott. He has written this essay to tell us about his adventure of visiting the moon for three days. He has used a number of metaphors to make this essay interesting and attractive.
He tells us about the sights, experiences and weightlessness he observed there. He made this journey in the Apollo 15 on July 29, 1971 and landed on the surface of moon with the help of a lunar module along with his two companions. They felt weightlessness as the gravity of the moon was sixteen times less than that of earth. They felt as they were walking on a trampoline. There were mountains on the surface of the moon. Stars were shining there. Then the sun rose with its full brightness and they came down on the surface of the moon with the help of a ladder. There was no air, no water, no plants and no life. Only brownish mountains and the beaches were there. One day on the moon was equal to 50 hours on the earth. They walked on the moon with an air of pride and honour as they were doing what no human being had ever done and they were the first to touch that mystical soil under their feet. These were the observations and feelings of Scott which he has composed in his essay to share them with the readers so that they can also feel his enthusiasm and pride.